Browse Items (93 total)

When Doris was in England, a man named Dr. Sturges took great interest in helping orphaned and displaced children from the war. He gave Doris books, fueling her love for reading. On one occasion in 1943, she was gifted "Sir Percy Lead the Band" by…

Confirmation of French Citizenship .jpg
The Certificate de Nationalité (Certificate of Nationality) confirmed Monique's citizenship in France.

Confirmation of deportation of Valentine Levy 1946.jpg
The Office National des Anciens Combattants et Victims de Guerre (The National Office for Veterans and Victims of War) sent a "certificate of disappearance" concerning Monique's mother, Valentine. The certificate did not recognize that she died at…

Waffen Pass 2 (1).jpg
Doris’s husband, Alfred (Fred) Schneider, was also a child in Austria in the 1930s. In 1934 he made his own Waffen Pass (Weapons Permit). The handmade pass represents how Fred processed the growing tensions in Austria, from the 1934 February…

When the Nazis invaded Poland in 1939, they forced all Polish Jews to wear identity badges. Selma was under the age of 6 and not understanding the situation, recalled feeling jealous that Edith wore a badge, but she did not.

Compulsory ID band %22jude%22 .jpg
Nazi propaganda minister Josef Goebbels was the first to suggest a "general distinguishing mark" for German Jews in May 1938. German SS and police official Reinhard Heydrich reiterated the proposal idea on November 12, 1938, during a meeting with…

Compulsory Identity Badge (France).jpg
By May 1942, the German military commander in France ordered all Jews over 6 to wear a yellow star. The star, about the size of a person's palm, had the inscription, Juif ("Jew" in French). Monique did not wear the identity badge because she hid…

Marseille Port.png
A photograph of the "customs canal" in Marseille where Monique's father, Jules, worked as a ship chandler and owned a shop. When the Nazis invaded France, it was taken from him for "Aryanization."

Map CZ 1933.png

Zloczow Memoir Photos Selma & Edith_1.jpg
Samuel Tennenbaum's work certificate was issued by the Judenrat and stamped by the Gestapo in 1940.

Samuel and Lina received a permit to live outside of the ghetto, signed by the Kreishauptmann (district captain), Quizo. He refused to allow Selma…
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