Browse Items (93 total)

Anschluss 1938.png

Poland After the German-Soviet Pact 1939.png

Occupation of Western Europe 1940.png

German Jewish Emigration .png

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The German authorities deported Minna "Sara" Ledermann (née Brüll), Peter's grandmother, from Arnstadt, Germany, to Theresienstadt on October 18, 1942. Less than three months later, Minna died in the ghetto-camp at the age of 69.


Peter's paternal grandparents and father (1).jpg
Peter Lederman's maternal grandparents, Julie and Kapel Hellbrunn, were deeply rooted in Germany. Both were born and raised there. They were steeped in German culture and language, and were integrated into German society. The Hellbrunns lived in…

Germany Compulsory Armband.jpg
Nazi propaganda minister Josef Goebbels was the first to suggest a "general distinguishing mark" for German Jews in May 1938. German SS and police official Reinhard Heydrich reiterated the proposal idea on November 12, 1938, during a meeting with…

Peter's Letter.jpg

Peter did not live in the Kitchener Camp. Instead, he attended a boarding school where he continued his education and learned English. Separated from his parents, Peter contacted his father and mother through letters and occasionally visited them.…

Lederman ID Card 1.jpg
In the fall of 1938, Nazi authorities required all Jews in Germany to carry identity cards stamped with the letter “J” for Jude (Jew). German Jews whose names did not instantly identify them as Jewish had to add the name “Sara” for women and…

Germany, 1933.png
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